In view of the devastation caused by the First World War, an organization called the League of Nations was formed so that such wars could be prevented in the future. ‘History OF World War- II’ At the time of the establishment of the League of Nations, all the countries thought that in the future all the countries would settle their border-related or other bilateral matters peacefully. But this estimate proved to be misleading and in 1939 AD World War II started. Why did this happen, what were the reasons for World War II, and what happened to it? Today, through this blog, we will learn about the Second World War in detail.
World War II-Brief Introduction
|Article Name||World War II|
|War start date||On 1 September 1939|
|End of war||14 August 1945, Officially Announced September 2, 1945|
|Victorious country||Allied powers, which included the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, among others.|
|Home Page||History Classes|
World War II
World War II was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the majority of the world’s nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The war was primarily fought between the Axis powers, led by Germany, Japan, and Italy, and the Allies, led by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union.
The war began with the invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 and quickly spread to other parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. It was the deadliest conflict in human history, with an estimated 50-85 million fatalities, including the Holocaust, in which six million Jews were systematically murdered by the Nazis.
The war ended with the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, and the dropping of atomic bombs by the United States on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leading to Japan’s surrender on August 15, 1945. The war had a profound impact on the world, including the formation of the United Nations, the beginning of the Cold War, and the establishment of the modern state of Israel.
World War II engulfed all the countries, the world was divided into two parts. All the countries of the world were, directly and indirectly, part of this war. The Second World War, which lasted from 1939-1945, proved to be very terrible. It divided the world into two parts.
Before the war, European countries formed two factions, one was called the Allies and the other was called the Axis. The Allies included France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and to a lesser extent China. Whereas Germany, Italy, and Japan were mainly involved in the Axis countries. Ten crore soldiers from different countries participated in the First World War. This war was so terrible that the number of people who lost their lives in this war was 5-7 crores (3% of the world’s population).
Major Causes of World War II
Although there were many reasons responsible for this war, mainly Germany is held responsible for this war. But apart from all this, there were many other reasons which played an important role in preparing the background of World War II like Japan in 1935. Occupied Manchuria in AD. Similarly, Italy attacked Abyssinia in 1935. But in the midst, the Second World War broke out in the Treaty of Versailles after the First World War, in which humiliating conditions were imposed on Germany. Never forgot the insult and was just looking for the opportunity when to avenge this insult
Humiliating Treaty of Versailles
The first subject After the victory of the war, the Allies made a treaty with Germany at Versailles (28 June 1919). According to this treaty, Germany was mainly responsible for the First World War, and heavy monetary punishment was imposed. After the First World War, Germany imposed a monetary penalty of 269 billion gold marks (the then German currency).
This was equivalent to the cost of about 1 lakh tonnes of gold. This economic penalty was imposed on Germany under the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919, exactly 101 years ago. However, it was later revised and reduced several times, but even then it was so much that it took Germany a full 91 years to pay it.
About fifteen percent of Germany’s territory was snatched and its mineral areas were captured, as well as its military potential was reduced. On June 17, the Allies gave Germany 5 days to accede to the treaty, failing which again war was threatened. The treaty, consisting of 240 pages and 440 penal laws, was signed by German leaders on 28 June 1919 at the Palace of Versailles on the outskirts of Paris.
Failure of the League of Nations
The League of Nations, which was established (in 1919) after the First World War, aimed to resolve the disputes between the countries of the world through dialogue. But when Italy invaded Ethiopia and Japan invaded Manchuria, then the League of Nations would see remained and did not react. One reason for this was also that the League of Nations did not have any kind of military capability. Eventually, the Second World War started and with it, the League of Nations also ended.
The Rise of Hitler in Germany
Germany’s humiliating defeat in World War I gave Hitler an opportunity to emerge. Hitler founded Nazism and became the dictator of Germany. He assured the people of Germany that he would regain the lost glory of Germany.
The Rise of Mussolini in Italy
Like Germany, fascist Mussolini arose in Italy. Italy fought on the side of the Allies in the First World War, but it did not make any significant gains in the Paris Peace Conference. This created a feeling of discontent in Italy, taking advantage of this, Mussolini established Fascism (1922 ) and concentrated all the powers in his hands.
The worldwide economic depression of 1929
The worldwide economic recession of the 1930s affected the countries of Europe and Asia in different ways. The political situation in most of the European countries had changed. For example, Germany, Italy, Spain, etc. shifted to totalitarian and imperialist governments. Japan, the resource-rich country of Asia, started attacking these areas to establish its control over Asia and Pacific regions.
The economic recession had a bad effect on all industries, businesses, and agriculture trade. The situation in Germany was the worst. Hitler attributed this situation to the Treaty of Versailles. This increased his power and he became a dictator.
The arms race in European countries
Germany was continuously increasing its military power. Seeing the preparation of Germany, other countries in Europe, France, Britain, etc. also started increasing their military power. As a result, there was a race to collect arms in European countries.
Development of imperialist forces
Imperialism became the main cause of World War II. Every imperial power wanted to increase its power and wealth by expanding its empire. This started competition in the imperialist nation. Russia, Japan, Italy, and Germany were all developing their regions.
Factionalism in European countries
Fearing the growing power of Germany, European nations started forming factions for their security. It was first initiated by France. He formed an anti-German faction of nations surrounding Germany. Germany and Italy formed a separate faction. Japan also joined in this. Thus Germany became a threesome of Italy and Japan. This nation came to be known as the Axis nation. France, England, America, and the Soviet Union became a separate group, and the grouping of European nations aroused a sense of apprehension, hatred, and animosity against each other.
Major Events of World War II
On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, with which the trumpet of World War II was sounded. Russia assisted Germany in this world war. As a result of which Poland was defeated, and Germany and Russia divided Poland among themselves. The period from 1st September 1939 to 9th April 1940 is considered a period of fake war or phony war because no real war took place in this period even though the state of war persisted.
In 1940, Germany launched an air raid on England, but England also thwarted this air attack. On 9 April 1940, Germany invaded Norway and Denmark and occupied them. By June 1940, the German army occupied France in addition to Belgium and Holland. France was forced to surrender.
Western Europe was very quiet during the first few months of the war. This period of war is known as the ‘Phoney War’. Preparations for war continued during this time, but there was little actual military conflict. Citizens of Western European countries were evacuated to safer places.
German dictator Adolf Hitler decided to invade Poland in early 1939. Poland was assured of aid by France and Britain during the German invasion. Hitler intended to invade Poland, but before that, he wanted to end the opposition to the Soviet Union. Although a non-aggression pact was signed in Moscow in August 1939 between Germany and the Soviet Union.
The ‘Winter War’ between Russia and Finland ended in March 1940, and Germany invaded Denmark and Norway the following month. Denmark immediately surrendered but Norway, with the help of Britain and France, fought Germany until June 1940.
Fall of France, 1940
Germany invaded France, Belgium, and Holland after the war with the Scandinavian countries ended. During this phase, Western Europe encountered the ‘Blitz Krieg’. Lightning Combat System: The German army used to destroy enemies by attacking them with very high-speed airstrikes from fighter planes. In this way, the German army did not give the enemy a chance to fight. Germany signed an armistice in France with the puppet French Vichy government. After conquering France, Hitler began preparations for an invasion of Britain.
Germany’s invasion of Britain, 1940
Germany’s invasion of Britain continued continuously from July to September 1940. It was the first to be fought entirely in the air. Germany decided to attack major factories and cities by air, but the Royal Air Force was barely able to save them. Germany eventually invaded Britain on its own. The plans were postponed indefinitely.
Global nature of war
After Nazi control of the continent of Europe (except Britain), the war was taken on a global scale. After the defeat of Mussolini’s forces in Greece and Tobruk, German forces reached North Africa and entered Greece and Yugoslavia in April 1941. attacked.
Hitler invaded Russia in 1941 by canceling the Ribbentrop Pact after being defeated by Britain. After conquering Sebastopol by the end of October, the next step was to conquer Moscow by the end of the year. Napoleon had experienced winter a century earlier, and Germany had to experience the same. The Soviets counterattacked in December, and the Eastern Front remained stable until the spring.
Japan,s Attack on Pearl Harbor
Troubled by US trade sanctions, Japan launched a surprise attack on US Naval Base Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on November 7, 1941. This ensured that a global conflict broke out. A few days after this attack, Germany declared war on America. Japan invaded the Philippines, Burma, and Hong Kong within a week of attacking Pearl Harbor.
America’s entry into the war
America entered World War II in 1942. American fighter jets played a decisive role in this war, destroying four Japanese carriers and a warship. News of the mass murder of Jewish people by the Nazis spread to the Allies and America promised to avenge these crimes.
In late 1942, British forces retaliated on North Africa and Stalingrad. Germany surrendered to the Soviet Union in February 1943 at Stalingrad. This was the first major defeat of the German army. In addition, German and Italian forces in North Africa surrendered to the Allies. As the Russian army gained an advance on the Eastern Front, it took Kharkiv and Kyiv from Germany. Has been taken back.
In addition, Allied bombers began attacking German cities. The Russian army reached Berlin (Germany’s capital) on April 21, 1945. Hitler committed suicide by shooting himself on the 30th and Mussolini was captured and hanged by Italian patriots. Germany surrendered unconditionally on 7 May and the next day was celebrated as Victory Day in Europe. Thus ended the war in Europe.
A nuclear attack on Japan and the end of the war
Japan was preparing plans to attack the Allied countries. Therefore, the fear of large-scale fighting and casualties prompted the new US President Harry Truman to approve the use of the atomic bomb against Japan. Nuclear and other similar destructive bombs were being developed since 1942, One of which was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. No country could have faced such attacks. Nuclear attacks badly ruined Japan, for which Japan had to surrender, and with this, the Second World War ended. (14 August 1945).
Results of World War II
World War II was one of the deadliest conflicts in human history, resulting in massive loss of life and devastation across the globe. The war officially began on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, and ended on September 2, 1945, with Japan’s surrender after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Here are some of the key results of World War II:
- Millions of people died: The estimated total number of casualties of the war, both military and civilian, range from 70 to 85 million people. This includes approximately 6 million Jews who were systematically murdered in the Holocaust.
- The Allies emerged victorious: The Allied Powers, consisting of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, among others, emerged as the victors of the war.
- The Axis powers were defeated: Germany, Japan, and Italy, who had formed the Axis powers, were defeated and forced to surrender.
- The creation of the United Nations: The United Nations was founded in 1945, with the goal of promoting international cooperation and preventing future wars.
- The beginning of the Cold War: Tensions between the Soviet Union and the Western powers intensified after the war, leading to the beginning of the Cold War.
- The formation of NATO: In response to the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union, the United States and several European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949.
- Decolonization: The war played a significant role in the dismantling of European colonial empires, as many colonized peoples fought for independence and self-rule.
- The devastation of Europe: Much of Europe was left in ruins after the war, with cities and infrastructure destroyed and economies in shambles.
- The beginning of the nuclear age: The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki marked the first use of nuclear weapons in warfare and signaled the beginning of the nuclear age.
- The rise of the United States as a global superpower: The war left the United States as the world’s dominant economic and military power, with its influence felt across the globe in the post-war era.
The results of World War II
The results of World War II were more decisive than those of World War I. Not only did it have a disastrous effect, but it also had some effects that changed the course of world history and led to the rise and development of a new world.
Extra money loss
In the Second World War, there was a lot of loss of money and people. More than 50 million people from both sides were killed in this war, the largest number of which were the Soviets. Millions of people were left homeless, adding to the problem of rehabilitation. Millions of Jews were murdered. The wounded could not be counted. Property worth about 2000 crores was destroyed in England. One-fourth of the entire national wealth of the Soviet Union was lost to the war.
End of colonial powers
After the Second World War, all the imperialist states had to lose their colonies one by one. The wave of nationalism in the colonies intensified. The independence movement intensified. Many countries in Asia were freed from European slavery. India also became free from British slavery.
End of Fascist forces
After being defeated in the war, came the troubles of the Axis nations. A large part of the German Empire was snatched from him. Italy also had to lose all its African colonies. Japan also had to return the territories over which it had held its right. The economic and military conditions of these nations also became pathetic.
The rapid spread of communism
After the Second World War, communism spread rapidly under the leadership of the Soviet Union. Communism spread in many countries of Eastern Europe, Asian countries, China, North Korea, etc.
The establishment of the United Nations
After the Second World War, the need for an international organization reappeared, so that world peace could be maintained and the recurrence of world wars could be prevented. The United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 on the initiative of America.
Impact of World War II on India
The British Empire suffered heavy losses due to the Second World War. To compensate for this, Britain started looking towards its colonies so that it could get back the status of world power. At the same time, Mahatma Gandhi started a movement to organize Indians against the British.
The purpose of the Second World War was to end Hitler’s dictatorship and the colonial suzerainty of Britain. When the Labor Party came to power in Britain in 1945, it was inclined towards liberal principles and racial equality. Immediately after coming to power, Prime Minister Clement Attlee (Labor Party) started the process of giving independence to India.
World War II had a significant impact on India, which was then a British colony. Here are some of the main impacts of the war on India:
- Economic disruption: India’s economy was heavily impacted by the war, with shortages of essential goods and inflation leading to widespread suffering.
- Recruitment of Indian soldiers: The British Indian Army played a significant role in the war effort, with over two million Indian soldiers serving in the British forces.
- Political mobilization: The war led to increased political mobilization in India, as nationalist leaders saw the war as an opportunity to push for independence from British rule.
- Partition of India: The aftermath of World War II played a role in the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947.
- Development of the Indian Independence movement: The war helped to galvanize the Indian Independence movement, with leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru gaining more support and momentum.
- Impact on the Indian economy: The war had significant effects on the Indian economy, including increased industrialization and modernization, as well as the development of new industries to support the war effort.
- Rise of communalism: The war also contributed to the rise of communalism and sectarian tensions in India, as different groups vied for power and influence in the lead-up to independence.
Overall, World War II had a profound impact on India, contributing to the country’s struggle for independence and shaping its economic, social, and political development in the years that followed.
Thus the Second World War left its impact on every country in the world. The imperialist forces of World War I and World War II ended and were replaced by economic powers like America. Many countries in Asia came out of the clutches of colonial powers and the trumpet of independence sounded. Countries like Russia and Britain had now lost their power in the world.